Hello My Name Is...

Mrs. Fletcher

U.S. History

Chapter 5




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Extra Credit for the second 9 week grading period

Build a model of one of the following:   Tepee
                                                                    Wagon
                                                                    Sod House
                                                                    Boomtown/ghostown (no ghosts)



Test (Vocab)- 11/14/2017

Test (Notes)-  11/14/2017



Vocab

       

    Pool- A group sharing in some activity, for example, among railroad barons who made secret agreements and set rates among themselves.

     

    Model T- America’s first mass production car made by the Ford Motor Company.

     

    Assembly Line- A system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again as items pass before him or her.


    Mass Production-The production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line.

     

    Mechanism- Mechanical Device

     

    Corporation- A business in which investors own shares.

     

    Trust- A combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition.

     

    Consolidation- The practice of combining separate companies into one.

     

    Railroad Baron- Powerful and aggressive business men who controlled the nation’s railroads. Cornelius Vanderbilt.

     

    Standard Gauge- The uniform width of 4 feet, 8.5 inches for railroad tracks, adopted during the 1880’s.

     

    Rebate- Discount or return of part of a payment.

     

    Stock- Shares of ownership a company sells in its business which often carry voting power.

     

    Shareholders- A person who invests in a corporation by buying stock and is a partial owner.

     

    Dividend- A stockholder’s share of a company’s profits, usually as a cash payment.

     

    Monopoly- Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company.

     

    Merger- The combining of two or more businesses into one.

     

    Partner- Associate who agrees to operate a business with another.

     

    Trend- General Direction.

     

    Sweatshop- A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions.

     

    Trade Union- Organization of workers with the same trade or skill.

     

    Collective Bargaining- Discussion between an employer and union representatives of workers over wages, hours, and working conditions.

     

 

 



 

RAILROADS LEAD THE WAY

·         ___Railroad Expansion___ allowed a few powerful individuals to build a ____great fortune____.

·         Powerful people who controlled ____the rail traffic___ were called ____Rail Barons_____.

Industries that Benefited from Railroads:

·         _______Lumber________

·         _______Coal___________

·         _______Iron____________

·         _______Steel___________

Railroad Technology: Important People

·         George Westinghouse- ______air brakes__________________________________

·         George M. Pullman- _______Pullman sleeping car__________________________

·         Gustavis Swift- ___________refrigerated cars_______________________________

·         Eli H. Janney - ___________Janney car couplers_____________________________

 

·         As railroad companies _____consolidated______, companies adopted a ________standard gauge_________ of 4 feet, 8.5 inches as the width of the railroad track.

 

INVENTIONS

·         New inventions ______revolutionized communications_______, making faraway places look closer.

New Inventions:

·         ______Telephone_______________________________________________

·         ______Engine Powered Aircraft____________________________________

·         ______Light Bulb________________________________________________

·         ______Telegraph_________________________________________________

·         ______Phonograph________________________________________________

·         ______Automobile________________________________________________

 

  Thomas Edison: Called the ____Wizard of Menlo Park____.

·         Edison is responsible for inventing _________electric lighting__________ and ______mechanical uses of electricity.________

  Alexander Graham Bell: Responsible for inventing the ______telephone service_______. This device revolutionized the _______communications________.

 

·         The _____assembly line______ meant that goods could be ____mass produced_____, which would lead to products being sold more cheaply.

·         Inventions helped _____unify the country_____ and promoted _____economic growth______.

 

AN AGE OF BIG BUSINESS

Examples:

·         ____Railroads____

·         ____Oil_________

·         ____Steel________

 

 

How Americans Built Fortunes in Oil & Steel Industries

·         ____Formed corporations____________

·         ____Formed trusts and monopolies_______

·         ____Used methods of vertical and horizontal integration____

·         Andrew Carnegie:

·         _____Steel Industry_________________

·         _____Vertical Integration_____________

·         _____Built a monopoly and gained a great fortune___

·         _____Philanthropist__________________

·         John D. Rockefeller:

·         _____Oil Industry_______________

·         _____Horizontal Integration_________

·         _____Built a monopoly and gained a great fortune____

·         _____Philanthropist__________________

Reasons for the Rise and Prosperity of Big Business:

·         National ____markets___ created by _____transportation____ advances.

·         ______Captains of Industry_______

o   (John D. Rockefeller-oil; Andrew Carnegie-steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt-shipping & railroads)

·         _____Advertising_______

·         _____Lower-cost production________

Factors that Resulted in Growth of Industry

·         Access to ____raw materials_____ and ___energy____.

·         Availability of ___work force____ due to ____immigration____.

·         ___Inventions_______

·         ___Financial Resources____

 

·         Philanthropist: The use of money to ______benefit the community_______.

 

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS

·         ____Factory workers_____ worked under _____terrible conditions______.

·         ____Garment workers____ toiled in crowded and dangerous urban factories called ____sweatshops______.

Negative Effects of Industrialization:

·         _____Child Labor________

·         _____Low wages, long hours____

·         _____Unsafe working conditions_____

Workers Form Labor Unions

·         Laborers were working long hours in _____unsafe_____ and ____unhealthy____ factory conditions.

·         Individually, workers had _____little power_______.

·         By working together as a _____union_____, they could put pressure on employers to _______improve conditions_______.

 

Major Strikes/Riots

·         _____Haymarket Riot_______

·         _____Homestead Strike______

·         _____Pullman Strike________

 

·         Companies hired _____strikebreakers_____ to replace striking workers.