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Click on classes and Ridgeview U.S. History II

Vocab Test Only- Date  March 1


Chapter 9 Vocabulary

1.     Nationalism- Intense loyalty to one’s nation or group and promotion of its interests above all others.

2.     Alliance System- Defense agreements among nations

3.     Ethnic Group- A minority that speaks a different language or follows different customs than the majority of people in a country; people who share a common language and traditions

4.     Balance of Power- The distribution of power among nations so that no single nation can dominate or interfere with another

5.     Militarism- A buildup of military strength within a country

6.     U-Boat- German submarine in World Wars I and II

7.     Propaganda- Ideas or information designed and spread to influence opinion

8.     Autocracy- Government in which one person has unlimited power

9.     Revolution- A war to overthrow a government

10.            Convoy- A group that travels with something, such as a ship to protect it

11.            Armistice- A temporary peace agreement to end fighting

12.            Kaiser- Emperor; the leader of Germany from 1871- 1918

13.            Mobilization- Gathering resources and preparing for war

14.            Pacifist- Person opposed to the use of war or violence to settle disputes

15.            Ration- To give out scarce items on a limited basis

16.            Dissent- Disagreement with or opposition to an opinion

17.            Socialist- Person who believes industries should be publicly owned and run by the government rather than by private individuals

18.            National Self-Determination - The right of people to decide how they should be governed.

19.            Reparations- Payment by a defeated aggressor nation for damages caused by war.

 

 

 

 

WAR IN EUROPE

FACTORS THE LED TO THE OUBREAK OF WORLD WAR I

1.       The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife.

2.       The assassination destroyed European stability.

 

·         President during World War I – Woodrow Wilson (*Hint: WW- World War = Woodrow Wilson)

 

·         Nationalism caused tension in Europe.

·         Nationalism encouraged new independent nations and some to break away from existing nations.

·         Alliance System – The purpose of the alliance system was to keep peace by creating a balance of power.

 

CAUSES OF AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I

1.       Inability to remain neutral

2.       German submarine warfare: Sinking of the Lusitania

3.       United States economic and political ties to Great Britain

4.       The Zimmermann Telegram

 

Major Allied Powers

1.       British Empire

2.       France

3.       Russia

4.       Serbia

5.       Belgium

6.       United States

Central Powers

1.       German Empire

2.       Austro-Hungarian Empire

3.       Bulgaria

4.       Ottoman Empire

 

AMERICA’S ROAD TO WAR

·         President Wilson declared that the U.S. would be neutral in the war in Europe.

·         Americans soon began to take sides.

·         Propaganda was used to gain citizens support for both sides.

·         After the sinking of the Lusitania and submarine warfare, President Wilson declared war on Germany in 1917.

·         America had to raise an army quickly.

·         May 1917, the Selective Service Act was passed.

o   This meant that mean aged 21-30 had to sign up, and a military draft occurred.

o   3 million men were called to serve by the draft, and 2 million joined voluntarily.

 

AMERICANS JOIN THE ALLIES

·         American soldiers were called “dough boys” because their uniform buttons looked like dough dumplings.

·         The Allies needed the help of American soldiers.

·         The Americans helped destroy the German submarines.

·         World War I gave African Americans the opportunity to show their loyalty and patriotism.

·         Discrimination remained and the troops had to train separately.

·         During the Battle of Argonne Forest, the Allies pushed back Germans and broke through enemy lines, effectively invading Germany.

·         German military leaders realized that they had little chance of winning, so they appealed to President Wilson for an armistice.

WILSON AGREED TO AN ARMISTICE UNDER THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS

1.       Germany must accept a plan for peace.

2.       German troops must leave Belgium and France.

3.       Wilson would deal with civilian leaders only, not military.

·         The armistice began on November 11, 1918. The fighting stopped, and the Great War ended. (Now known as Armistice or Veterans Day)

CONDITIONS THAT GERMANS HAD TO ACCEPT

1.       Withdraw all land forces west of the Rhine River

2.       Withdrawal of the fleet from the Baltic Sea

3.       Surrender huge amounts of equipment

 

THE WAR AT HOME

United States Leadership as the War Ended

·         At the end of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peacekeeping organization.

·         The United States decided not to join the League of Nations because the United States Senate failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

 

·         To pay for the war, the U.S. sold war bonds and increased taxes.

·         The labor shortage during the war provided an opportunity for women to enter the workforce.

·         The labor shortage also provided new job opportunities for African Americans.

·         The African Americans had to migrate to the north. This was called the Great Migration.

 

·         The U.S had to produce more food and wanted Americans to eat less.

o   The U.S. had to produce food for its own needs AND for the Allies.

o   The Food Administration encouraged voluntary rationing of food.

 

·         Anti-War sentiments were strong.

·         The public information committee launched a propaganda campaign to promote the war as a battle for democracy and freedom.

·         The American government approved legislation to control public opinion.

o   Espionage Act – set stiff penalties for espionage.

o   Sabotage Act and Sedition Act – made it a crime to say, print, or write any criticism about the government.

o   These acts were passed to create a sense of national unity.

 

SEARCHING FOR PEACE

·         Europe lay in ruins after the war.

·         Europe faced social and political turmoil such as millions of homeless people, hungry, and civil war raged in Russia.

·         Wilson outlined his peace plan in Fourteen Points.

·         Europeans wanted revenge.

·         Wilson’s last point was to create a League of Nations.

·         The member nations would help preserve peace and prevent future wars.

·         The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 by the Allies and Germany.

·         The treaty was rejected by the senate in 1920, because Americans did not approve of the League of Nations and it punished Germany too severely.