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Click on classes and Ridgeview U.S. History II
Chapter 5 test Nov 2

Chapter 5 Vocabulary


  1. Consolidation- The practice of combining separate companies into one
  2. Railroad Baron- Powerful and aggressive business men who controlled the nation’s railroads.
  3. Standard Gauge- The uniform width of 4 feet, 8.5 inches for railroad tracks, adopted during the 1880’s
  4. Model T- America’s first mass production car made by the Ford Motor Company.
  5. Assembly Line- A system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again as items pass before him or her.
  6. Mass Production-The production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line.
  7. Corporation- A business in which investors own shares
  8. Stock- Shares of ownership a company sells in its business which often carry voting power
  9. Dividend- A stockholder’s share of a company’s profits, usually as a cash payment.
  10. Trust- A combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
  11. Monopoly- Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company.
  12. Sweatshop- A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions.
  13. Trade Union- Organization of workers with the same trade or skill
  14. Injunction- A court order to stop an action, such as a strike


  • ___Railroad Expansion___ allowed a few powerful individuals to build a ____great fortune____.
  • Powerful people who controlled ____the rail traffic___ were called ____Rail Barons_____.

Industries that Benefited from Railroads:

  • _______Lumber________
  • _______Coal___________
  • _______Iron____________
  • _______Steel___________

Railroad Technology: Important People

  • George Westinghouse- ______air brakes__________________________________
  • George M. Pullman- _______Pullman sleeping car__________________________
  • Gustavis Swift- ___________refrigerated cars_______________________________
  • Eli H. Janney - ___________Janney car couplers_____________________________


  • As railroad companies _____consolidated______, companies adopted a ________standard gauge_________ of 4 feet, 8.5 inches as the width of the railroad track.



  • New inventions ______revolutionized communications_______, making faraway places look closer.

    New Inventions:

  • ______Telephone_______________________________________________
  • ______Engine Powered Aircraft____________________________________
  • ______Light Bulb________________________________________________
  • ______Telegraph_________________________________________________
  • ______Phonograph________________________________________________
  • ______Automobile________________________________________________


  • Thomas Edison: Called the ____Wizard of Menlo Park____.
  • Edison is responsible for inventing _________electric lighting__________ and ______mechanical uses of electricity.________
  • Alexander Graham Bell: Responsible for inventing the ______telephone service_______. This device revolutionized the _______communications________.


  • The _____assembly line______ meant that goods could be ____mass produced_____, which would lead to products being sold more cheaply.
  • Inventions helped _____unify the country_____ and promoted _____economic growth______.




  • ____Railroads____
  • ____Oil_________
  • ____Steel________



How Americans Built Fortunes in Oil & Steel Industries

  • ____Formed corporations____________
  • ____Formed trusts and monopolies_______
  • ____Used methods of vertical and horizontal integration____
  • Andrew Carnegie:
  • _____Advertising_______
  • _____Lower-cost production________
  • _____Steel Industry_________________
  • _____Vertical Integration_____________
  • _____Built a monopoly and gained a great fortune___
  • _____Philanthropist__________________
    • John D. Rockefeller:
  • _____Oil Industry_______________
  • _____Horizontal Integration_________
  • _____Built a monopoly and gained a great fortune____
  • _____Philanthropist__________________

    Reasons for the Rise and Prosperity of Big Business:

  • National ____markets___ created by _____transportation____ advances.
  • ______Captains of Industry_______
    • (John D. Rockefeller-oil; Andrew Carnegie-steel; Cornelius Vanderbilt-shipping & railroads)

Factors that Resulted in Growth of Industry

  • Access to ____raw materials_____ and ___energy____.
  • Availability of ___work force____ due to ____immigration____.
  • ___Inventions_______
  • ___Financial Resources____


  • Philanthropist: The use of money to ______benefit the community_______.



  • ____Factory workers_____ worked under _____terrible conditions______.
  • ____Garment workers____ toiled in crowded and dangerous urban factories called ____sweatshops______.

Negative Effects of Industrialization:

  • _____Child Labor________
  • _____Low wages, long hours____
  • _____Unsafe working conditions_____

    Workers Form Labor Unions

  • Laborers were working long hours in _____unsafe_____ and ____unhealthy____ factory conditions.
  • Individually, workers had _____little power_______.
  • By working together as a _____union_____, they could put pressure on employers to _______improve conditions_______.


    Major Strikes/Riots

  • _____Haymarket Riot_______
  • _____Homestead Strike______
  • _____Pullman Strike________


  • Companies hired _____strikebreakers_____ to replace striking workers.