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Click on classes and Ridgeview U.S. History II
Chapter 7 Test on 12-14

1)Emigrate- To leave one’s place of residence or country to live somewhere else

2)Sweatshop- A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions.

3)Ethnic Group- A minority that speaks a different language or follows different customs than a majority of people in a country

4)Steerage- Cramped quarters on a ship’s lower decks for passengers paying the lowest fares

5)Tenement- A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety

6)Slum- poor, crowded, and run-down urban neighborhoods.

7)Suburbs- residential areas that sprang up close to or surrounding cities as a result of improvements in transportation.

8)Settlement House- institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous community services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English

9)Hull House- settlement house founded by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889

10)Skyscraper- A very tall building


11)Land Grant College- originally, an agricultural college established as a result of the 1862 Morrill Act that gave states large amounts of federal land that could be sold to raise money for education

12)Realism- An approach to literature and the arts that shows things as they really are.

13)Regionalism- Art or literature focused on a particular region of the country

14)Yellow Journalism- Writing which exaggerates sensational, dramatic, and gruesome events to attract readers, named for stories that were popular during the late 1800s

15)Vaudeville- Stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows




  • Americans called for ___reform___ in the ____late 1800’s____.
  • The reformers were called ___progressives____.
  • Progressives focused on ____urban problems___, ___government____, and ___business___.
  • They claimed that the American government was ___taking advantage__ of the American people rather than ____serving them____.

Political Machines

  • Political machine = a group that controls the __activities__ of a __political party__ in a city.
    • žOffered services to ___voters__ and ____businesses___ in exchange for political support.
    • žControlled: __New York__, ___Baltimore__, ___San Francisco__ & other cities
    • žWorked to ___elect their candidates___
  • City Boss: controlled __activities__ of the city
  • Ward Bosses: worked to ___secure votes___ in all precincts in their ward.
  • Precinct Captains: tried to ___gain voters___ on a city block or neighborhood.


  • Kickbacks: When you charge ___more than necessary___ for a job and give the extra money to a ____political machine____.
  • Accepted __bribes__ for illegal activity.

Boss Tweed Scandal

  • žBoss Tweed: was head of the ___Tammany Hall___ in New York City.
  • žThe ___Tweed Ring___ was a group of ____corrupt politicians____.


  • Pendleton Act: established the ___Civil Service Commission___ to give examinations for federal jobs.
  • Job seekers had to ____demonstrate their skills____ on these tests.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act: The first federal law to control ___trusts and monopolies___.
  • Oligopoly: a few large companies that controlled ___prices___ for an entire ___industry___.
  • Interstate Commerce Act: required ___railroads___ to charge and publish “__reasonable and just rates__”.
  •  The __government__ gained control over powerful business with the ___Sherman Anti-Trust Act___ and the ___Interstate Commerce Act___.
  • Muckrakers: reporters who “__raked__” or “__exposed__” the “__muck__”; dirt and corruption in society.
  • The Muckrakers ___publicized___ and increased public pressure for ___reform___.



  • __Roles__ began to change for the ____middle class women____ in the late 1800’s.
  • Women began to pursue ____higher education_____.
  • ___Educated___ women were starting professional careers, such as ___teachers___, ___nursing___, and the ____medical field____.
  • The fight for women’s rights became known as ____Women’s Suffrage____.
  • ___Suffragists___ are men and women who fought for women’s rights to vote.
  • The suffrage movement lasted ___70 years___.
  • ___19th Amendment___ - Women gained the right to vote.
  • Leadership grew with leaders such as ____Susan B. Anthony____ and ____Elizabeth Cady Stanton____.




Why were some groups against giving women the right to vote?

  • Opponents felt women’s suffrage was ___unnatural___ and would lead to __divorce__ and

    ____child neglect____.

  • Temperance Movement: the goal of the Temperance Movement was ___prohibition___ and laws that banned the making and selling of ____alcohol____.
    • žComposed of groups opposed to the __making__ and ___consuming___ of ___alcohol___.
    • žSupported the ____18th Amendment____ to the Constitution of the United States, prohibiting the ___manufacture___, ___sale___, and ___transport___ of alcoholic beverages.


  • Theodore Roosevelt
    • žBecame President in __1901___
    • žBelieved ___business___ should be ___regulated___.
    • žThe ___protection____ or ____conservation____ of the country’s natural resources.
    • žPromised a ­Square Deal- __fair__ and __equal__ treatment for all.
    • žIntroduced a ___new era___ of ____government regulation____.
  • William Howard Taft
    • žBecame President in __1908__.
    • žFavored safety regulations for ___mines___ and ____railroads____.
    • žTaft was weak on ___tariffs___ and ____conservation____.
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • žBecame President in __1912__.
    • žCriticized ___big business___ and ____government____.
    • žCalled his program “___New Freedom____”.
    • žBy the end of his term, progressive support was ___declining___ and he had turned to

____world affairs____.


Reasons for Discrimination/Unequal Treatment

  • ____Religion____
  • ____Race_______
  • ____Country of Origin___
  • ____Ethnicity____
  • Minority groups in the U.S. sought to end ____discrimination____ and obtain ____equal rights_____.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson: a Supreme Court decision that legalized ___segregation___.
  • Booker T. Washington
    • žFounded ___Tuskegee Institute____
    • žFounded ___National Negro Business League___


  • W.E.B. Du Boise
    • žFounded ___Niagara Movement___


  • Maggie Lena
    • žFounded ___St. Luke’s Penny Savings Bank____